Shepherds and shepherdesses walk in procession to the Temple of Eros on the island of Lesbos. Daphnis and Chloé who are in love with each other join the procession. Young people start their play dance in which they provoke mirth and dalliance with each other. Dorcon conceives a passion for Chloé. Daphnis sees Dorcon trying to kiss Chloé and pushes him aside angrily.
Dorcon tries to give Chloé the measure of his feelings with his passionate dance but is not successful. Daphnis matches Dorcon’s dance against his gracious dance which highly elates Chloé. She kisses Daphnis’ lips. For the first time in his life, the young shepherd is inexplicably thrilled by girl’s kiss. Shepherdesses take Chloé away; everyone goes off.
Daphnis is left alone. At that moment Lycaenion, a girl in love with Daphnis, returns to allure him. Smitten with her beauty, he is carried away by temptation.
Warlike sounds and war cries are heard, coming nearer. Thanatos’ warriors attack the island. Having heard the screams, Daphnis comes running to find Chloé, but his search meets with no success since Chloé has been captured and carried off by warriors. Mad with despair, Daphnis falls swooning.
Moved to pity by Daphnis’ tears, the Nymphs appear to invoke Eros’ aid.
Wakened from sleep, Thanatos’ warriors wait for their god. Thanatos appears and the warriors are swept with a frantic dance. Warriors bring Chloé who beg Thanatos for mercy, but her cries only feed his flame of passion. Eros and the Nymphs appear suddenly. Eros strikes Thanatos and his warriors blind to set Chloé free. Eros gives his blessing to her marriage to Daphnis.
The Nymphs prepare Chloé to meet Daphnis. Daphnis appears and they throw themselves into each other’s arms. The Nymphs whirl the reunited lovers in a dance.
Shepherds and shepherdesses act out an episode about Pan’s love of Syrinx. Daphnis and Chloé are involved by the Nymphs in dancing. Before the altar of Eros, Daphnis and Chloé pledge their love and swear to part no more. Everyone feels happy and throws in a bacchanale, triumphing and glorifying Eros.