马林斯基剧院, 大剧场

弄臣

三幕歌剧

用意大利语唱
(俄语和英语字母)

Performers

指挥:

帕韦尔·斯梅尔科夫

Cast to be announced

Credits

作曲: 朱塞佩·威尔第
编剧:弗朗奇斯科·玛利亚·皮亚韦
根据维克多·雨果的讽刺戏剧《国王寻欢作乐》改编

Musical Director: Valery Gergiev
Stage Director: Irkin Gabitov
Designer: Sergei Grachev (after sketches by Tiziano Santi)
Costume Designer: Giovanna Avanzi
Lighting Designer: Damir Ismagilov
Lighting Adaptation for the Primorsky Stage: Yegor Kartashov
Musical Preparation: Andrei Annenkov
Chorus Masters: Anna Pipia, Larisa Shveikovskaya
Assistants Director: Mikhail Smirnov
Ballet Mistress: Alexandra Tikhomirova

SYNOPSIS

第一幕
曼图亚公爵在自己的寝宫举行舞会。公爵对侍臣包尔萨谈起他前些日子看见的一个可爱的姑娘,非常漂亮,又很文静,每天都要到教堂里去。曼图亚公爵决心一定要把她弄到手。正说着,他开始追求切普拉诺伯爵夫人。他的弄臣里戈莱托幸灾乐祸地戏弄伯爵,嘲笑他的嫉妒。侍臣定计对他进行报复。台上出现贵族马鲁洛,称听到一则新闻,说里戈莱托在郊外金屋藏娇。蒙特罗内伯爵突然上场了,当众谴责公爵污辱了他女儿。里戈莱托也当面嘲弄他。蒙特罗内诅咒了公爵和弄臣。

夜晚的大街,弄臣在回家的路上,遇到一位名叫斯巴拉夫奇勒的职业杀手,斯巴拉夫奇勒问弄臣有什么可以帮忙,希望招来生意。弄臣对蒙特罗内伯爵的诅咒耿耿于怀。他因总是遭到贵族和侍臣的厌恶和鄙视而怒火中烧。

弄臣开启墙上暗门,回家见他亲爱的女儿吉尔达。由于父亲一直阻止她公开露面,除了教堂,她从未踏足过任何地方。他喊来了保姆乔万尼,问她是否有人来过这里,然后又再三叮嘱她一定要关好大门,防止有人溜进来。此时,藏在树丛中的人看一看,原来,他就是好色的曼图亚公爵,现在装扮成了大学生的模样。公爵早先扔给保姆一个鼓鼓囊囊的钱包,让她不要出声,保姆立刻走开了。公爵伪称自己:他是一个贫穷的大学生,名叫瓜尔蒂•马尔德。然后,他向吉尔达表白爱慕之情。此时,外面忽然有声响,“大学生”就要赶紧离开。

这时, 带戴着假面具的鬼鬼祟祟的贵族们来到里戈莱托"金屋藏娇"的屋外。他们遇着弄臣时,骗他说是掳获切普拉诺伯爵夫人。要他帮忙。拿布把他眼睛蒙住后,大家翻过墙把吉尔达劫走。等静下来, 里戈莱托发现女不见,才知受骗。

第二幕
公爵宫殿一室。公爵满脸不高兴,因为他刚才又去找可爱的吉尔达了,却不料,她失踪了。公爵被众朝臣告知他们已经把弄臣的“情妇”掳入宫中。高高兴兴的公爵就急急跑去相会。

弄臣此时来到公爵寝宫,寻找女儿。他故作冷淡,深怕吉尔达落入公爵手上。弄臣终于说出自己在寻找亲女。

通往公爵内室的门突然开了,冲出来的就是吉尔达,满脸都是泪。弄臣决定向公爵报复,及发誓要为女儿报仇,但吉尔达却替公爵求情。

第三幕
河边客栈,深夜,里戈莱托与吉尔达走到门外,他要女儿与公爵切断情感,但她却说永远爱他。公爵追求斯巴拉夫奇勒的妹妹玛达蕾娜。吉尔达见公爵与玛达蕾娜调情,伤心之极。弄臣劝女儿死心,让她先离开这里,逃往维罗纳,期望稍后跟她会合。姑娘离去后,斯巴拉夫奇勒上场, 里戈莱托让他杀死公爵, 先预付一半佣金, 约定另一半等公爵尸体用麻袋运来时再交给他。

暴风雨将至。玛达蕾娜哀求哥哥放过上楼睡觉的公爵。女扮男装的吉尔达偷听到兄妹之间的对话。斯巴拉夫奇勒答应妹妹,如果半夜以前能找到替死鬼,就饶了公爵一命。吉尔达决定牺牲自己,以身殉情。她走进旅馆便马上遭到毒手,被斯巴拉夫奇勒刺伤,伤重倒地,昏迷不醒。暴风雨过后, 里戈莱托回来, 斯巴拉夫奇勒把沉重的麻袋交给他。 里戈莱托把麻袋拖到河边,却听到客栈里仍有公爵的歌声… 他打开口袋,惊见里面躺着自己奄奄一息的亲女儿。吉尔达表示自己乐意为爱人牺牲。里戈莱托在悲愤中高喊,昏倒在女儿身上,惊叫:“那老头的诅咒已灵验!”

ABOUT THE PRODUCTION

There was one very interesting point in the contract for a new opera concluded in April 1850 between the Board of Venice’s Teatro La Fenice and maestro Giuseppe Verdi.

Or to be more precise, in essence, that point was missing. The matter in question concerned the plot, which the composer was to select basically of his own free will. The strange logic of the Board is, in fact, not so very hard to understand. Verdi’s name was all but a sure-fi re guarantee of success and good box-office takings were assured.

While looking for a plot for his latest opera, Verdi settled for a drama by Victor Hugo: Le Roi s’amuse. The composer was at the height of his powers. He was enchanted with the atypical and ambiguous images of the protagonists, though the most important thing was their passions – the driving force of the plot. But fortune was not to shine on Verdi. At the first production of Hugo’s play in 1832 the Parisians all but arranged an antimonarchist picket, following which the play was banned. That comes as no surprise as at the core of the drama lay an incredibly unflatteringly drawn image of the King Francis I. The choice of such a subject as the basis of a libretto was not approved by the censor: the martial ruler of Venice issued a categorical ban.

Verdi despaired. There was no time to write another opera. This story, however, was to see yet another – even more unexpected – turn of events. Among the censors there was one influential player in the Chief of Police, a certain Carlo Martello. With the best of motives Martello suggested rewriting the libretto, more specifi cally changing the names of the characters, leaving out the monarch’s depraved features and dropping the jester’s hunched back as well as other more or less signifi can’t “details”.

Verdi’s reaction is well-documented. How else could it have been with a composer in relation to a policeman “clamouring” to be a co-author? The theatre, however, jumped at the lifeline. After four days of tense debate, Verdi at last agreed to the compromise. The composer retained the features of the characters, but gave them different names, changed the era and the location and made several other amendments to the dramaturgy. In an incredibly swift period Verdi completed his opera. All the troubles connected with being granted permission to stage the work were in the past.

The most important thing the composer managed to achieve was to create mysterious images and such characters of the protagonists who would not be viewed unambiguously. The dissolute and unprincipled Duke was to be a man who loves life and amusements. His melodies are refined, easygoing and – undoubtedly – pleasant. The Duke’s main enemy is his ennui, which is why he has so much need of the jester.

Rigoletto... A freak instead of a hero – a theme Hugo adored. One year before the play Le Roi s’amuse Hugo had created the hunchbacked Quasimodo. Here the jester was Triboulet, at the end of his life, “a man who laughs”. The hunchback – the opera’s protagonist – was an even bolder step. In one act, Verdi presents two totally contrasting views of this character: a villain angry with everyone surrounding him and a suffering, deeply loving father.

Much later Verdi declared Rigoletto a paradox in his creative career: the obligatory compromises should have affected the opera in a negative way, but what actually happened was that an unusual drama emerged, having a much brighter future than its protagonist.

Daniil Shutko


World premiere: 11 March 1851, Teatro La Fenice, Venice
Premiere of this production: 6 May 2005, Mariinsky Theatre, St Petersburg
Premiere at the Primorsky Stage of the Mariinsky Theatre: 21 April 2017, Vladivostok

Running time: 3 hours
The performance has two intervals

Age category 12+

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